Delta SurveyA British Academy Research Project Information on the archaeological sites of the Delta is presented here in the form web-pages containing an alphabetical listing of sites. Where a substantial amount of information is available, or photographs of the site exist, links are provided to supplementary pages. The site-names in most cases are those of the Survey of Egypt maps. The material is offered as a source of reference and a tool for the planning of new projects. The letters 'T' and 'K' in the lists stand for 'Tell' and 'Kom' respectively, Arabic words for 'mound', describing the usual appearance of archaeological sites in the region. We would recommend viewing this area of the website on a desktop computer. You may also be interested to visit the separate Western Delta Regional Survey on Durham University's website here: http://community.dur.ac.uk/penelope.wilson/Delta/Survey.html About the survey Alphabetical index Sites by SCA number Sites on Google Earth Bibliography YUSEF, T  (SHON YUSEF) Described by Foucart as a mud-brick enclosure of 600 x 400m with parts of wall standing up to 11m high being mined for sebakh and already reduced by 1902. Interior flat with Roman pottery and pools of water (in 1898). Burnt brick, slag, pottery and 5 large blocks of granite found inside enclosure in 1892. Foucart proposed identification with Ta-shunet-re, mentioned on the Piankhy Stela. This possible identification has been maintained by Grimal (La Stele Triomphale de Piankhy, 150), Yoyotte (in Melanges Maspero I, pt. 4 (1961), 132 note 3), and Gomaa, Die Libyschen Furstentumer des Deltas, 88 note 46, but is refuted by Zivie (Hermopolis et le Nome de L'Ibis, 77). The Friedman and Buck survey in 1992 visited and mapped a site which they thought was Shon Yusef, but which was in fact Baramkin (EES 497), which has on some maps acquired the name Tell Yusef. Satellite imagery of the probable location (2007) shows only cultivated fields. Earlier condition: The site seems to have been brought to the attention of scholars first by Foucart, who was surprised that a site of its size had escaped notice. In 1892 and 1894 when Foucart (RT 20 (1898):148-149; ASAE 2 (1901):162-164) visited the site as part of his survey of east Delta tells, the ancient remains at Tell Yusef consisted of a vast rectangle some 800 metres north-south and 300 metres east-west (although in the earlier report he gives the dimensions as about 600 by 400m) composed of mud-brick (map on left below). At that time, the standing walls were not less than 11 metres high in at least three places and generally were preserved to a height of at least three metres for its entire circuit except in the north eastern corner. Taking into account the collapse, he estimated that the original full height of the walls must have been at least 12 metres. Successive levels of rebuilding were evident in the walls. An entrance pierced the east wall and Foucart initially reported a twice built entrance on the west. The interior space was notably lower than the surrounding fields so that water filled it most of the year. Emerging from the water, Foucart reported piles of fired brick, slag, pottery and rubble of the Roman period along with 5 large blocks of granite without inscription in the northwest corner. Foucart confirmed that the site was inhabited in the Roman period, but also suggested it had a much longer history. He proposed that the popular name of the site 'Shon Yousef' (store house of Joseph) or its corruption Dachoun or Dachnoun was a modern memory of the place name mentioned on the Victory Stele of Piankhy, 'Ta shunet-re', which was a fiefdom of the prince of Mendes (Grimal 1981:150, no.115). This possible identification has been maintained by Grimal (1981:150), Yoyotte (1961:132 note 3), and Gomaa (1974:88 note 46), but is refuted by Zivie (1975:77). If it is the case, the area controlled by Mendes at this time was roughly equivalent to the extent of the 16th Lower Egyptian nome. To bolster this attribution and the earlier date for the site, Foucart also suggests that a black granite statuette of Saite date found at Ezbeh Selim Pasha near Dachnin may have originated from this site. The examination of the pottery found during the recent survey supports his early dating. Foucart noted that although the enclosure was still visible to several metres, sebakh activities were taking their toll. He estimated that within several years the site would be reduced to several isolated buttes and that within 30 years time nothing would remain. Despite his notice, Tell Yusef does not appear on the list of site protected by Government order in 1910, and met the fate that Foucart foretold.