Delta Survey

A British Academy Research Project

Information on the archaeological sites of the Delta is presented here in the form web-pages containing an alphabetical listing of sites. Where a substantial amount of information is available, or photographs of the site exist, links are provided to supplementary pages. The site-names in most cases are those of the Survey of Egypt maps. The material is offered as a source of reference and a tool for the planning of new projects.  The letters 'T' and 'K' in the lists stand for 'Tell' and 'Kom' respectively, Arabic words for 'mound', describing the usual appearance of archaeological sites in the region.

We would recommend viewing this area of the website on a desktop computer. 

You may also be interested to visit the separate Western Delta Regional Survey on Durham University's website here: http://community.dur.ac.uk/penelope.wilson/Delta/Survey.html 

Polish-Slovak Archaeological Mission in Tell el-Retaba: 

In 2009, the 3rd season of the Polish Mission directed by Dr. Slawomir Rzepka and Dr. Jozef Hudec, was plannd to continue excavations in 2 areas in which they werestarted in 2008: on the northern defence wall of the Ramesside fortress, and in N-W part of the site, where a domestic architecture from the time of Third Intermediate Period was discovered. However, several days after the beginning of the fieldwork we were informed about the planned construction of the second line of the road running through the site. This project will cause a significant damage to the site, therefore the mission concentrated on rescue excavations on the endangered area. Discovery of a series of well datable infant burials proved that the earliest fortifications documented by Petrie (his 'Wall 1') do not belong to the Hyksos period, but to the late 18th-early 19th Dynasty. Also excavated was a fragment of an ancient road (in use since the late NK till the TIP) leading from the migdol toward the centre of the fortress. It seems that the area south of this road served a domestic purpose and was covered by houses of significant size, of which at least some had more than one floor, while north of the road there was a kind of industrial area. Work has continued with additional discoveries of the Second Intermediate Period and New Kingdom. 

Bibliography: 

Naville, E., The Shrine of Saft el-Henneh and the Land of Goshen. London 1888, 24f. and pl.11. 
Petrie, W. M. F. Hyksos and Israelite Cities. London 1906, 1f. and pl.35. 
PM IV, 55.
Gardiner, A. H., in JEA 5 (1918), 268ff.  
Helck, in VT 15 (1965), 31f.
Holladay, J.S., Tell el-Maskhuta. Malibu 1982, 6ff.
Bietak, M., Tell ed-Daba II. Vienna 1975, p. 221.
Rzepka, S., Hudec, J., Wodzinska, A. and Herbich, T., 'Tell er-Retaba 2007-2008', Ägypten und Levante 19 (2009), 241-280.
Rzepka, S. et al., 'Tell el-Retaba, season 2007', PAM 19  143-151. Warsaw 2010. 
Wodzinska, A., 'Tell el-Retaba, ceramic survey 2007', PAM 19, 152-59. Warsaw 2010. 
Rzepka, S., Hudec, J., Herbich, T.,'Tell el-Retaba 2008: Excavations and geophysical survey', PAM 20 (Research 2008), 129-145. Warsaw, 2011. 
Rzepka, S and Gorka, K., 'Infant burials from Tell el-Retaba', MDAIK 67 (2011), 93-100.  
Wodzinska, A.,'Tell el-Retaba 2008: the pottery', PAM 20 (Research 2008), 146-52. Warsaw, 2011.
Wodzinska, A., 'Pottery and Chronology. Preliminary remarks on ceramic material from Tell el-Retaba', in Aston, D., Bader, B., Gallorini, C., Nicholson, P. and  Buckingham, S. (eds), Under the Potter’s Tree, Studies on Ancient Egypt Presented to Janine Bourriau on the Occasion of her 70th Birthday, (OLA 204, 2011), 1015-36.
Rzepka, S., Wodzinska, A., Malleson, C., Hudec, J., Jarmuzek, L., Misiewicz, K., Malkowski, W. and Bogacki, M., 'New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period in Tell el-Retaba', Ägypten und Levante 21 (2011), 129-84. 
Rzepka, S., Hudec, J., 'Tell el-Retaba: season 2009', PAM 21 (Research 2009), 107-117. Warsaw, 2012.
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Malleson, C., 'Tell el-Retaba: archaeobotanical studies', PAM 21 (Research 2009), 118-23. Warsaw, 2012.
Rzepka, S., Nour el-Din, M., Wodzinska, A. and Jarmuzek, L., 'Egyptian Mission Rescue Excavations in Tell el-Retaba. Part 1: New Kingdom Remains', Ägypten und Levante 22/3 (2012-13), 253-87.
Rzepka, S., Hudec, J., et al., 'Tell el-Retaba, season 2010', PAM 22 (Research 2010), 79-95. Warsaw, 2013.
Jarmuzek, L., 'A stable of the Third Intermediate Period at Tell el-Retaba', JEA 99 (2013), 281-9.
Wodzinska, A., 'Tell el-Retaba, season 2010: pottery report', PAM 22 (Research 2010), 96-103. Warsaw, 2013. 
Malleson, C., 'Tell el-Retaba 2010. Preliminary report on archaeobotanical investigations', PAM 22 (Research 2010), 90ff. Warsaw, 2013.
Hamdy  el-Elimi, F., and Nour el-Din, M., 'La tombe no 16 de Tell el-Retaba', BIFAO 114, (2014), 227-44.
Rzepka, S., Hudec, J., Wodzinska, A., Jarmuzek, L. Hulkova, L., Dubcova, V., Piorun, M. and Seföakova, A., 'Tell el-Retaba from the Second Intermediate Period till the Late Period. Results of the Polish-Slovak Archaeological Mission, Seasons 2011-2012', Ägypten und Levante 24 (2014), 39-120.
Rzepka, S., Hudec, J., Jarmuzek, L. and Piorun, M. and Malleson, C., 'Tell el-Retaba, season 2011', PAM 23/1 (Research 2011), 87-108. Warsaw 2014. 
Wodzinska, A., 'Tell el-Retaba 2011: The pottery', PAM 23/1 (Research 2011), 109-116. Warsaw 2014. 
Hassan, K., 'La tombe no. 16 de Tell el-Retaba', BIFAO 114 (2014), 227-44. 
Rzepka, S. and Hudec, J. et al., 'Tell el-Retaba. season 2012', PAM 24/1, (2015), 139-155.
Wodzinska, A., 'Tell el-Retaba 2012: the pottery', PAM 24/1, (2015), 164-172.
Malleson, C., 'Appendix: Preliminary report on archaeobotanical investigations in Tell el-Retaba (2012)', PAM 24/1 (2015), 156-163.
Malleson, C., 'Preliminary Excavation Reports: Tell el-Retaba, Polish-Slovak Mission. Archaeobotanical Investigations at Tell el-Retaba. Ramesside Fortresses and 3rd Intermediate Period Town (Area 9), Polish-Slovak (PDMA) Mission Seasons 2010-14', Ägypten und Levante 25 (2015), 175-200. 
Grezak, A., 'Preliminary Excavation Reports: Tell el-Retaba, Polish-Slovak Mission. Ramesside and Third Intermediate Period Bone Remains from Tell el-Retaba', Ägypten und Levante 25 (2015), 167-174.
Nour el-Din, M., Hulková, L., Rzepka, S., Hudec, J. et al., 'Tell el-Retaba 2014 - 2015', PAM 25 (2016), 193-226.
Rzepka, S. et al., 'Tell el-Retaba: season 2016', PAM 26/1, (2017), 107–134.
Sefcaková, A., Hudec, H. and Wodzinksa, A., 'Egyptian Mission Rescue Excavations in Tell el-Retaba. Part 2: The Second Intermediate Period Cemetery', Ägypten und Levante 26 (2016), 75-114.
Trzciski, J., Zaremba, M., Rzepka, S., Bogusz, W., Godlewski, T. and Szczepaski, T. 2017, 'Preliminary back-analysis of the height of mud brick fortifications based on geoarchaeological data at Tell el-Retaba site in egypt', in Studia Quaternaria 34, no. 2 (2017), 99–108.
Rzepka, S. et al., 'From Hyksos Tombs to Late Period Tower Houses. Tell el-Retaba - Seasons 2015–2016',  Ägypten und Levante 27 (2017), 19-86.
Šefcáková, A., 'Anthropological Observations from Tell el-Retaba', Ägypten und Levante 27 (2017), 99-106.
Rzepka, S. and Hudec, J.  et al., 'Preliminary Excavation Reports: Tell el-Retaba, Polish-Slovak Mission. From Hyksos Settlers to Ottoman Pipe Smokers. Tell el-Retaba 2014', Ägypten und Levante 25 (2015), 97-166.
Bulawka, S., 'Flint Artefacts from Tell el-Retaba. Polish-Slovak Archaeological Mission, Seasons 2010–2016',  Ägypten und Levante 27 (2017), 87-98.
Hudec, J. et al 2018, 'Tell el-Retaba, season 2017', PAM 27/1, pp. 93–122
Hudec, J., Hulková, L., Dubcová, V., Wodzińska, A. 2019, 'Formation of an Empire. Results of the Season 2017 in Tell el-Retaba', Ägypten und Levante 29, 14-51.
Jarmużek, L., Rzepka, S., Ryś, A. 2019, 'Tell el-Retaba 2017. Third Intermediate Period Settlement', Ägypten und Levante 29, 52-77.
Ryś, A. 2019, 'Grinding Tools at the Third Intermediate Period Tell el-Retaba', Ägypten und Levante 29, 78-87.
Wodzińska, A. 2019, 'Tell el-Retaba 2017. Pottery in Context', Ägypten und Levante 29, 88ff.
Jarmusiak, L., Rzepka, S. and Rys, A., 'Tell el-Retaba in the 1st millennium BC. Results of the Polish-Slovak Archaeological Mission, season 2019', Ägypten und Levante 30, (2020), 119-56.
Trzcińska, K. and Wodzińska, A., 'Pigeon pots’ from Tell el-Retaba', Ägypten und Levante 30 (2020), 203-218.