Delta Survey

A British Academy Research Project

Information on the archaeological sites of the Delta is presented here in the form web-pages containing an alphabetical listing of sites. Where a substantial amount of information is available, or photographs of the site exist, links are provided to supplementary pages. The site-names in most cases are those of the Survey of Egypt maps. The material is offered as a source of reference and a tool for the planning of new projects.  The letters 'T' and 'K' in the lists stand for 'Tell' and 'Kom' respectively, Arabic words for 'mound', describing the usual appearance of archaeological sites in the region.

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You may also be interested to visit the separate Western Delta Regional Survey on Durham University's website here: 

Name Location
Map ref.
Extent No. Notes Literature
Radwan, K SW of Abu Hummus 30 55 42N
30 12 49E
over 50 ha.
421 Formerly a very large mound, the original extent of which is visible in satellite imagery from the 1960s CORONA programme. Part overbuilt by village and cemetery, some parts levelled to fields. Details SCA Beheira register no. 100258.
SoE 1:100,000 (1916). ESA 1996 1:50,000 map sheet NH36-I4c.
Raghib, T 5.5km W of San el Hagar 30 57 49N
31 48 42E
150 x 80m
100 x 80m
662 The site is adjacent to the large area designated as Tell el-Bus (Tahun), EES no. 163. Two small residual areas of the mound show in the fields on satellite images of 2005. These were unchanged in 2009, but by May 2016 the W. mound had been test-pitted, and the E. one entirely covered by square excavation trenches. Details SCA Sharqiya register 13190083.
Rahmaniya,  13km NE of Damanhur 31 09 48N
30 31 45E
622 Shown on the SoE 1916 map as a small mound. Now partly overbuilt by a town and modern cemetery, with only a small flat area free at the SE. This tested by the SCA. SCA Beheira register no. 100149. SoE 1:100,000 (1916) map.
Raiya, T N of Faqus 30 50 45N
31 49 40E
185 Amsterdam University survey of 1984 reported this site had been levelled to agriculture long ago. SCA Unregistered site no. 130005. SoE 1:25,000 series, 90/690; Brink MDAIK 43 (1987), 7ff., 22.
Rak, T N of Abu Kebir 30 53 45N
31 43 30E
destroyed, overbuilt
181 Said to be devoid of antiquities when inspected in 1902. Italian survey 1987-8: noted as completely destroyed by modern settlement. SoE 1:25,000 series, 90/675; Noted ASAE 2, 80; Chlodnicki and Fattovich in CRIPEL 14 (1992), 50.
Ramedi, K er- N of Fuwa 31 22 19N
30 37 03E
237 Shown as large 700 x 300m mound on the SoE 1914 map, on the (then) S edge of lake Burullos. The SCA in 1990 reported this site 'finished'. The whole area is now cultivated. SoE 1:50,000 (1914); 1:100,000 (1916).
Ras, K er- S of Kafr ed-Dauwar 31 06 01N
30 09 14E
470 x 300m
364 A large mound completely covered by a modern cemetery. SoE 1:50,000 (1914);1:100,000 (1916). ESA 1:50,000 map NH36-M1a (1996).
Rasif, K er- 10km N of El-Wahhal 31 19 48N
30 55 53E
265 Shown as a small mound on the 1914 map. SCA told J Spencer in 1990 that this site had been levelled. Position now covered by Ezbet Bakr. SoE 1:50,000 (1914).
Razaiqa, Ezbet near Salhiya unknown
466 Amsterdam University survey 1985. Former tell of 400 x 150m, with a height of 1.5m Sherds of NK, Saite, Ptolemaic and Roman date noted. Brink, in MDAIK 43 (1987), 7ff., 21, 23.
Rekawya, K el- S of Damanhur 30 49 39N
30 28 33E
part levelled
711 Site of a once-large mound, much of it levelled. Across the canal at the north is the adjacent site of Kom Qamha (710). SCA Beheira register no. 100240.
Ritabi, er- S shore of Lake Burullos 31 24 25N
30 48 22E
150 x 130m
258 A small rounded mound, clear among the lagoons of fish-farms. Visited by Penny Wilson for EES Delta Survey in 2012. Details SCA Kafr es-Sheikh register no. 090123.
Riyad, T er- ESE of Abu Kebir 30 42 38N
31 44 10E
300 x 180 x 2m
576 Amsterdam University survey of 1984-5: NW part  levelled for the village and rest covered by a cemetery. Limestone chips on surface. Sherds of Saite, Ptolemaic, Roman and  Coptic date noted. Also known in 1984 as Tell Shalalu, a name also applied to T. Gindiya (EES no. 354). SoE 1:25,000 series, 88/675; Brink, MDAIK 43 (1987), 7ff., with table of p.23.
Rizimat, T el- SW of Abu Hummus 30 56 44N
30 15 07E
425 A mound of 170 x 150m on the 1914 map. Now overbuilt by a small settlement. Some traces of it may remain at the SE edge of the village. SCA Beheira register no. 100219. SoE 1:50,000 (1914); 1:100,000 (1916).
Rizq, K S of Abu Hummus 31 00 15N
30 18 49E
389 A very small mound on the 1914 map, just NE of a village of the same name. The viilage of Kom Rizq actually stands on Kom el-Nasraniya. Registered with SCA Beheira no. 100178. SoE 1:50,000 (1914); 1:100,000 (1916).
Roka, K el 20km E of Disuq 31 08 10N
30 51 05E
part levelled
584 DAI 1983 survey reported the mound totally levelled, but sherds present in the fields over some 250-300m. One sherd dated from the Old Kingdom, the rest were all of Late Roman date. A remnant of the mound was visible, however, on satellite imagery until 2013, but was levelled to agriculture in 2015. P Ballet and T von der Way, MDAIK 49 (1993), 19-21, Fig. 8, nos. 63-67; Schiestl 2010b, 4-5.
Rotab, T er- W Tumilat 30 32 54N
31 57 50E
Partly overbuilt
219 Major site not part of this survey
J Hopkins University expedition worked here in 1978-9. Sondages revealed 2IP pottery and later material. From 2008, a joint Polish-Slovak mission led by Slawomir Rzepka and Jozef Hudek has been working at the site. Details
See Naville, Mound of the Jew, 56-7; Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities, 28-34;  Redford, in Dossiers d'Archéologie, no. 213 (1996), 52-3; 'Digging Diary', in EA 36 (Spring 2010), 30.

Ruba, T er- S of Mansura 30 57 30N
31 31 00E
178 Major site not part of this survey
Ancient Mendes. Large multi-period city-site. American excavations 1960s - 1981; In 1990s new project directed by R Wenke for Washington State University and a separate dig under D. B. Redford for the Canadian Institute.
SCA Daqahliya - Dameitta register no. 050306 (location marked erroneously as 050307 on SCA map). For bibliography click here: Ruba and Timai bibliography
Ruhaiyim, K S of Abu Hummus 30 58 44N
30 21 04E
435 Marked on the 1914 map, already with some overbuilding. This has become a little more extensive (2020), but there remains a clear portion at the south which could be investigated. Kom Abu Aggur (436) was at the north end of the same settlement. SoE SoE 1:50,000 (1914); 1:100,000 (1916).
Ruhban, T er- 20km NW of Qantara 30 59 02N
32 06 43E
650 x 350m
destroyed 2011
654 Remains of a mound present in 2004, in a flat area being reclaimed for fish farms. The mound survived to 2007, partly cut by fields in 2009, and totally gone by 2011. In 2016 the whole area was occupied by fish-farms. Details SCA Sharqiya register 13060099.
Rumadniya, K el- SW of Abu Hummus 30 57 25N
30 12 46E
160 x 110m
418 A low mound, size reduced by advance of fields, clear of buildings. In cultivation well away from roads. At high risk. SCA Beheira register no. 100203. SoE 1:100,000 (1916).
Ruq Salim 15km E of Zagazig 30 34 27N
31 40 42E
part levelled
112 Already overbuilt in 1914. Small area of mound at S edge of village tested by SCA in 2009 and levelled to a field by 2010. SCA Sharqiya register 13040099. SoE 1:50,000 (1914).
Rusas, K el- SW of Abu Hummus 30 58 47N
30 10 35E
415 A small mound (c. 100m) on the 1914 map, now vanished under cultivation. SoE 1:50,000 (1914); 1:100,000 (1916).
Rushdi, Ezbet 5km N of Faqus 30 47 45N
31 48 45E
580 Former name Tell Abu el-Filus. Amsterdam University survey of 1984 reported it had been levelled in the mid-1950s. More recently  excavated by the Austrian Institute and Hildesheim Museum. SoE 1:25,000 series, 89/690; See Brink, MDAIK 43 (1986), 7ff., 21; PM iv, 9. Bietak, Tell ed-Daba II, 38, 81.
Sa el Hagar N of Kafr el-Zayat 30 57 54N
30 46 06E
large but low and partly overbuilt
13 Major site investigated by joint University of Durham-EES project but not otherwise a subject of this survey
Extensive mound below town; large enclosure at N mostly levelled to agriculture. Survey begun by Penny Wilson for the EES in 1997 with surface mapping followed by drill-coring and excavation. Satellite images show new housing along the N edge of the mound and a large built complex on the W side, constructed between 2013 and 2016.

SCA Gharbiya register no. 080205.
For bibliography, click here: Sais

Read more about current fieldwork at Sais here

Saadiya, K es- NW of Abu el-Zarazir 30 52 25N
30 26 26E
 145 x 130m
444 CORONA imagery (1968) shows a mound, cut to a rectilinear shape by advance of fields, of about 145 x 130m. A remnant  of 70 x 50m survives on satellite imagery to 2016. SCA Beheira register no. 100220 (position incorrect on the SCA map). SoE 1:100,000 (1916). On sketch map by Coulson, in Brink, Archaeology of the Nile Delta, 260.
Saba, K el- 10km S of Abu Hummus 31 00 32N
30 19 25E
70 x 30 x2m (2005)
645 Visited by Penny Wilson in 2005: Consists of two areas either side of the road., the eastern one covered by a small cemetery with a shrine in the centre. Details and photos Not SCA registered.
Saba (i), K el- Near Abu Hummus 31 05 04N
30 18 15E
70 x 60m
696 A patch of sandy wasteland cut by the Cairo to Alexandria road. The larger part is on the NW side. By 2014 this was overbuilt by a petrol station. Details SCA Beheira register no. 100110.
Saba (ii), K el- 10km NW of Damanhur 31 06 22N
30 21 44E
230 x 80 x 3m
610 Visited by Penny Wilson for EES in 2005: situated on a small mound, about 2-3m above the fields at its highest part. It is difficult to see the mound because of the densely packed houses. Details and photos Listed in SCA Beheira register no. 100111. SoE 1:100,000 (1916). Wilson, P., The West Delta Regional Survey, Beheira and Kafr el-Sheikh Provinces, 154-5.
Sabak ed-Dahak 10km WSW of Atrib 30 26 18N
31 04 12E
under village
641 Visited by EES survey in 2005, led by J. Rowland. The highest area in the village is still raised by some 3m. Details and photo SCA Menufiya register no. 080103.
Indicated on the map in Bietak, Tell ed-Daba II.
Sabiya, K es- S of Kafr ed-Dauwar 30 57 13N
30 08 14E
407 Probably = K Sabi of Hogarth's unpublished 1895 report to the EEF: said to be Roman. No mound on ESA 1996 map NH36-I4c, only the village. SCA Beheira register no. 100245. SoE 1:100,000 (1916); ESA 1996 map NH36-I4c. See P Spencer, in Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honour of H S Smith (EES 1999), 305, 308-11.
Saft el Henna 7 km SE of Zagazig 30 33 10N
31 36 30E
severely reduced by 1983
217 Liverpool University Delta Survey 1983 found temple site under cultivation, few stone blocks remaining. Other small patches of tell seen in village and fields. Moslem cemetery noted by Naville has now largely gone. SCA Sharqiya register no. 13040065. PM iv, 10-13; Naville, Saft el Henneh; Tyldesley, Pop. Arch. July, 1985, 33-6. Redford, in Dossiers d'Archéologie, no. 213 (1996), 51; Davoli, P. 2001, Saft el-Henneh: archeologia e storia di una citta del Delta orientale. Imola; Engsheden, A. (2014), Le naos de Sopdou à Saft el-Henneh (CG 70021). Cairo; Tirabilli, E., 'Una riconstruzione topografica del distretto templare di Saft el-Henna tra filologia e archeologia', in Egitto e Vicino Oriente 35, (2012), 125-42. Pisa.
Sahaba, T el- W Tumilat, nr. T. Maskhuta 30 32 55N
32 06 35E
part overbuilt
527 SCA work in 1973 found mid-Bronze IIa burials. A sand gezira. Leclant, Orientalia 44, 202.
Sahil, T - - - - see Ihteita, T (188) -
Sahragt 8km SE of T Moqdam 30 38 30N
31 17 05E
524 Coptic site, perhaps ancient Leontopolis / Natho. The villagers had no knowledge of archaeological remains, but the church, located at the highest point in the town is reputed to have been founded in the 4th century AD. Details Helck, W., 'Natho', in LA IV, 354-5; Gomaa, F., 'Tell el-Moqdam', in LA VI, 352; Gardiner 1947, *146-8; Friedman and Buck forthcoming; Muhs forthcoming
Saieda, K At Abu Hummus 31 05 50N
30 19 44E
100 x 50m, flat (2004)
378 This is a cleared sandy area next to a large rice processing factory. The site is very flat and low. Visited by Penny Wilson in 2004. Details and photos SCA Beheira register no. 100139 (position on SCA map incorrect). SoE 1:100,000 (1916). Wilson, P., The West Delta Regional Survey, Beheira and Kafr el-Sheikh Provinces, 146-7, 368-9.
Saieda, T el- S of Kafr ed-Dauwar 30 58 18N
30 04 36E
250 x 180m
401 A small mound remnant overbuilt by a village. SCA Beheira register no. 100221.
Saieq, K es- NW of Biyala 31 18 05N
31 03 53E 
270 x 250m
744 A round antiquity mound visible on CORONA images from 1968, then in unreclaimed land, and still present at about the same size in 2017 but surrounded by fields. SCA Kafr es -Sheikh register no. 090152.
Sakha near Kafr es-Sheikh 31 05 20N
30 57 04E
10 Ancient Xois. the majority of the site has been levelled and is covered by the south part of Kafr es-Sheikh city, except for a small area of the mound which is being used by the military (2011). Details SCA Kafr es-Sheikh register no. 090149. PM iv, 45; See BIFAO 66 (1968), 165-9; Spencer, A.J. 2016, The Delta Survey 2009-2015, EES, London, 30-1.
Sakharin, T el- E of Fariskur 31 19 12N
31 46 06E
 329 No visible evidence for the site now exists at this location. SCA Daqahliya - Damietta register no. 050116, under new name of Tell Abu Gereida. Noted as 'insignificant' in ASAE 13 (1913), 179 ff.
Salamant 14km SW of Bilbeis 30 22 15N
31 25 08E
330 x 70m
663 A levelled mound remnant and a modern cemetery mound on the W edge of the village. SCA Sharqiya register 13080003.
Salaset Ghabat, K es- - -
- See Talat Ghabat (120). -
Salatna, el- W of Faqus 30 44 30N
31 45 38E
590 Listed in Amsterdam University 1984 survey as having been levelled and overbuilt by a village. Some NK sherds noted. Brink, in MDAIK 43 (1987), 20, 23.

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