Delta Survey

A British Academy Research Project

Information on the archaeological sites of the Delta is presented here in the form web-pages containing an alphabetical listing of sites. Where a substantial amount of information is available, or photographs of the site exist, links are provided to supplementary pages. The site-names in most cases are those of the Survey of Egypt maps. The material is offered as a source of reference and a tool for the planning of new projects.  The letters 'T' and 'K' in the lists stand for 'Tell' and 'Kom' respectively, Arabic words for 'mound', describing the usual appearance of archaeological sites in the region.

We would recommend viewing this area of the website on a desktop computer. 

You may also be interested to visit the separate Western Delta Regional Survey on Durham University's website here: http://community.dur.ac.uk/penelope.wilson/Delta/Survey.html 

British Museum concession since 1991. A large and relatively intact mound marking the site of ancient Smabehdet, also known in the New Kingdom as Paiuenamon, with a temple enclosure on the south and high occupation mounds to the north and west. The west mound is Roman with occupation down to beginning of 6thC AD; the east mound mainly dynastic. Temple foundations of Sheshonk III, Psamtik I and Nekhtnebef, dated by foundation-deposits, have been discovered, with enclosure walls of the Ramesside Period and dynasties 26 and 30. Part of the Ramesside temple enclosure-wall was cut by the tomb of a Lower Egyptian Vizier named Iken, dating from the reign of Osorkon I. More elite tombs of Dynasty 22 were found at the front of the Ramesside temple of Amun, to left of axis, in 1999. These were built of stone and contained some burials with falcon-mask coffins. In 2003 a Roman street was discovered through the middle of the site. The whole of the temple area has been magnetically mapped by a team led by Dr Tomasz Herbich of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Previous work by Howard Carter in 1913 (MSS in Griffith Institute, Oxford) and Francis Ghattas for Mansura University in 1977-78.

Note: a set of web pages about the excavations directed by Jeffrey Spencer for the British Museum at Tell el-Balamun is available at http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/research_projects/excavation_in_egypt.aspx 

   

Left, excavation at the front of the Nekhtnebef temple, 2004; right, part of the temple enclosure wall of dynasty 26

   

Left, part of the Roman street; right, foundation deposit plaques of Psamtik I

   

Left, foundation deposit plaques of Nekhtnebef; right, the elite cemetery

Shabti-figures of the Vizier Iken

Bibliography

Abd el-Malek Ghattas, F., 'Some Selected Amulets from Tell el-Balamon Abu-Galal', ASAE 65, 1983, 149-155. 
----, 'Tell el-Balamoun 1978', ASAE 68, 1982, 45-49. 
----, 'Tell el-Balamon, Abu-Galal Excavations. First Season, March 3 to June 9, 1978', DE, New.Series, 1, 1989, 155-160. 
Brugsch, H., DG, 30-31, 163-164, 704-706, 1326-1327. 
Calderini, II/1, 116. 
Carter, H., 'Note on the Capital of the 17th Nome Sebennytes Inferior Pa Aa n Amon Diospolis Kato', Carter Ms. IV, 6 avril 1915, Griffith Institute, Oxford. 
Corteggiani, J.P, 'Documents divers. VII. - Une stèle de donation du règne de Néchao II', BIFAO 75, 1975, 147-152. 
Daressy, G., 'Inscriptions hiéroglyphiques du Musée d'Alexandrie', ASAE 5, 1904, 113-128. 
----, 'Les branches du Nil sous la XVIIIe dynastie', BSRGE 16, 1928, 225-256. 
Edgar, C.C., 'The Sarcophagus of an Unknown Queen', ASAE 8, 1907, 276-277. 
Farag, N., 'Une stèle de Ramsès II', ASAE 39, 1939, 127-132. 
Gardiner, A.H., 'Horus the Behdetite', JEA 30, 1944, 23-60. 
----, AEO, Il, 180-181*, § 413. 
Gauthier, H., Dictionnaire Géographique, I, 44, 178; Il, 28-29, 36, 53, 54; III, 77; V, 33-34. 
Gauthier, H., 'À travers la Basse Égypte', ASAE 23, 1923, 173- 175. 
----, Les nomes d'égypte, 165-168. 
----, 'Un curieux monument des dynasties boubastides à Hérakléopolis magna', ASAE 37, 1937, 21-22. 
Grdseloff, B., “Notice sur un monument inédit appartenant à Nebwa, premier prophète d'Amon à Sambehdet”, BIFAO 45, 1947, 175-183. 
Helck, Gaue, 194-195. 
Herbich, T. and Spencer, A.J., 'Geophysical Survey at  Tell el-Balamun', in Egyptian Archaeology 29 (Autumn 2006), 16-19. 
Herbich, T. and Spencer, A.J., ‘Tell el-Balamun Geophysical and Archaeological Survey, 2006’. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean (PAM) 18, Reports 2006, Warsaw 2008, 101-111. 
Herbich, T. and Spencer, A.J., ‘Tell el-Balamun Geophysical and Archaeological Survey, 2007-8’. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean (PAM) 19, Reports 2007, Warsaw 2010, 131-141. 
Hogarth, D.G., 'Three North Delta Nomes', JHS 24, 1904, 1-19. 
James, T.G.H., Howard Carter. The Path to Tutankhamun, London and New York, 1992, 163-165.
Leclant, Or. 48, 1979, 346, §11. 
---- and Clerc, Or. 61, 1992, 231-232, §21; Or. 62, 1993, 184-185, §12; Or. 63, 1994, 358-359, §16; Or. 64, 1995, 238-239, §8; Or. 65, 1996, 248, §20; Or. 67 (1998), 328-9; Or. 68 (1999), 327-8; Or. 69 (2000), 220.
Leclère, F., Les villes de basse Égypte au Ier millénaire av. J.-C. vol. I, Cairo, 2008, 279-312.
Malek, J., 'Tell el-Balamun',  VI, 319-321. 
----, 'Paiuenamun, Sambehdet, and Howard Carter's Survey of Tell el-Balamûn in 1913', RdE 36, 1985, 181-185. 
Montet, P., Géographie, I, 111-117. 
Munro, P., 'Die Statuen des Hrw aus Baqliya und Tell el-Balamûn, Kestner-Museum 1980.84/ Lausanne 9/ Turin 3026', in Osing, J., Dreyer, G., (ed)., Form und Mass. Beiträge zur Literatur, Sprache und Kunst des alten Ägyptens. Festschrift für G. Fecht zum 65. Geburtstag am 6. Februar 1987, Wiesbaden 1987, 307-336. 
Nibbi, A., 'Behdet in the Delta', GM 65, 1983, 63- 74. 
Quaegebeur, J., 'La statue du général Pétimouthês, Turin, Museo Egizio cat. 3062 + Karnak, Karakol no. 258', in Van't Dack, E. (ed)., The Judean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 1O3-IO1 B.C., Collectanea Hellenistica, I, Brussels, 1989, 88-108. 
Razanajao, V., Recherches sur Tell el-Balamoun, Capitale du XVIIe Nome de Basse-Egypte. Université Paul Valery - Montpellier III. 2000. 
----,  'Tell el-Balamoun: Considerations Toponymiques autour de la Ville la plus septentrionale d'Egypte', in Goyon, J-C. and Cardin, C., Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists. Paris 2007. 
Reeves, N., 'The Search for Tutankhamen', Aramco World 39/6, nov. dec. 1988, 6-13. 
----, Taylor, J.H., Howard Carter be/ore Tutankhamun, London, 1992, 105- Il0. 
Sethe, K., 'Diospolis', RE IX, col. 1144-1145. 
Spencer, A.J., Excavations at Tell el-Balamun 1991-1994. London, 1996. 
----, Excavations at Tell el-Balamun 1995-1998. London, 1999. 
----, Excavations at Tell el-Balamun 1999-2001. London, 2003. 
----, 'New Light on Tell el-Balamun/Smabehdet', in Eyre, C. (ed)., Seventh International Congress of Egyptologists. Cambridge. 3-9 September 1995, Abstracts of papers, Oxford, 1995, 175-176. 
----, 'Work of the British Museum at Tell el-Balamun', EA 7, 1995, 9-11. 
----, Museums and Galleries of Britain and Northern Ireland. Reed International, 1996. 
---- 'Diospolis - Balamoun', in Les Dossiers d'archéologie, No. 213 (May 1996), (Editions Faton, Dijon), 86-9. 
----, 'British Museum expedition to Tell el-Balamun, interim report 1998', ASAE 74 (1999), 69-74,+4pls. 
----, 'British Museum expedition to Tell el-Balamun, Interim report 1999', ASAE 75 (1999-2000), 3-9, +4pls. 
----, 'British Museum Expedition to Tell el-Balamun, Report 2005', ASAE 80 (2006), 521-529. 
----, 'An elite cemetery at Tell el-Balamun', EA 18, Spring, 2001, 18-20. 
----, 'Main Street Diospolis Inferior', In : N. Crummy (ed.), Image, Craft and the Classical World. Essays in honour of Donald Bailey and Catherine Johns (Monogr. Instrumentum 29), Montagnac 2005, p. 233-241.
----, Excavations at Tell el-Balamun 2003-2008. With a contribution by Tomasz Herbich. Online publication at http://www.britishmuseum.org/research_projects/excavation in egypt/reports_in_detail.aspx. Also available on Acadaemia.
----, 'Tell el-Balamun 2010', BMSAES 16 (2010), 149-68.
Spiegelberg (W.), Ägyptologische Randglossen zum Alten Testament, Strasbourg, 1904, 32-36. 
Timm, S., 'AI-Balamun', TAVO B 41/5, 1995, Wiesbaden, 2090-2094. 
Yoyotte, J., 'Recherches sur la géographie historique et religieuse de la Basse égypte', AEPHE 79, 1971-1972, 167-173. 
----, 'Sites et cultes de Basse égypte orientale, de Silé à Tanis', AEPHE 94, 1985-1986, 231-235.